- Data Collection System
- pH Sensor
- Magnetic Stirrer
- Ring Stand
- Beaker (2), 100-mL
- Beaker (2), 10-mL
- Volumetric Flask, 1000-mL
- Erlenmeyer Flask, 250-mL
- Hot Plate/Magnetic Plate
- Automatic Titrator
- Jar with custom-made hockey puck-derived lid, 180-mL
- Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP), 0.6g
- Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), 0.40g
- Buffers, pH 4 and pH 10, 10 mL
- Water, deionized, 250 mL
- Plastic Bottle, 1-L
- Wash Bottle
- Aluminum Foil
- Gathered all equipment and materials. Inspected all equipment for damage or contamination. Hotplate/Magnetic Plate and Stand were already assembled.
- Weighed out 4.212 g of NaOH. Placed into Erlenmeyer flask, and added 50 mL of deionized water.
- Moved solution into a 1000 mL volumetric flask, and diluted solution to 1 L with deionized water.
- Sealed flask, inverted flask, shook gently to stir. Vented flask once solution had become homogenous. Transfered solution to 1 L plastic bottle.
- Started a new experiment with the data collection system. Set up graph.
- Set up the Titrator, flushing it once with deionized water.
- Calibrated the pH sensor, by rinsing it, measuring the pH of the buffer solutions, taking care to rinse the sensor between measurements, and then testing it with the buffers again.
- Added the magnetic stirrer to the end of the pH sensor, and passed it through the hockey-puck lid, and into the jar, ensuring that the entire apparatus was secured to the stand.
- Prepared a solution of 0.1999 g (0.2003 g, and 0.2004 g on the second and third trials, respectively) of KHP, and about 50 mL of water, before adding said solution to the 180 mL jar, and attaching it to the hockey puck lid. Ensured that the pH sensor was submerged within the solution
- Loaded the Titrator with the titrant.
- Activated magnetic stirrer, and set to a mid-range speed.
- Activated the Titrator, running beyond the equilibrium point, until the pH curve had flattened, ensuring that the system was recording at the time.
- Repeated with a second and third KHP solution.
- Recorded data, saved graph, and flushed titrator with deionized water.
- Cleaned all glassware, set them to dry in their designated areas, and returned all equipment to its point of origin.
The average concentration of the solution is 0.0829 mol/L.
As one began with an expected concentration of 0.1053 M (given that one began with a solution with 0.1053 moles of NaOH, and 1 L of deionized water), given the resulting average experimental concentration of 0.0829 mol/L, this indicates significant error within the experiment.
Calculation of error:
Trial 1: 31.11%
Trial 2: 8.52%
Trial 3: 24.25%
Possible sources of error include:
- Failure to properly measure the mass of the solutes (thus reducing the accuracy of all further calculations).
- Failure to flush all of the deionized water from the titrator.
- Failure to titrate beyond the equivalence point (making determining the point at which the two solutes had completely reacted impossible).
- Failure to keep the solution mixed while titrating, introducing the possibility that the solution may not completely react in areas, and the possibility of inaccurate measurement.
- Failure to properly handle the solutions, introducing the likelihood of contamination (NaOH can react with carbon dioxide in the air), thus disrupting measurements.
- Failure to properly measure the mass of the NaOH, or KHP (disrupting all further calculations).
- Human error is always in effect, given that the laboratory does not function under ideal conditions. As such, there is always the possibility of inaccuracies with measurement, perception of measurement, inaccuracies of equipment, and other such errors. (However, this is not likely to be the sole cause of the inaccuracies within this experiment, though it may contribute to it.)
Possible improvements that one could make to the experiment include using a more accurate pH probe, using more accurate balances, using a more accurate titrator (the syringe could be made more accurate), ensuring that lab partners read the experiment beforehand (increasing familiarity with the procedure, and minimizing human error), preparing the solutions in an atmosphere that lacks carbon dioxide (to avoid reaction of the NaOH solution), and repeating the experiment multiple times (to minimize the impact of an anomalous result).