DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.

Data Analysis:


The average Calcium Carbonate content of the sample is 38.10%.



The goal of this experiment is to determine the Calcium Carbonate content of an anti-acid pill. By adding a known volume of HCl of a set concentration to a known mass of Calcium Carbonate, and boiling it, one can react all of the Calcium Carbonate with HCl, and have a remaining volume of HCl in the solution. One can then titrate the solution with a standardized NaOH solution, and, knowing the stoichiometric ratio between the NaOH and HCl, calculate how much of the HCl solution was remaining. Then, by subtracting this from the total amount of HCl solution added initially, one can determine how much HCl reacted with the Calcium Carbonate, and then by accounting for stoichiometry, how many moles of Calcium Carbonate were in the pill. Then, one can use the formula weight of Calcium Carbonate to determine how many grams of Calcium Carbonate were in the pill, or, if so desired, the percentage of the pill that is made of Calcium Carbonate.


The average Calcium Carbonate content of the sample is 38.10%.


As the average experimental Calcium Carbonate content is 38.10%, and the expected Calcium Carbonate concentration is 35.50%, this indicates error within the experiment that should be further examined.

Trial 1: 6.090%

Trial 2: 8.771%

Trial 3: 7.112%


Possible sources of error include:

  • Failure to properly measure (or standardize) the concentration of the NaOH solution.
  • Failure to titrate beyond the equivalence point (making determining the point at which the two solutes had completely reacted impossible).
  • Failure to keep the solution mixed while titrating, introducing the possibility that the solution may not completely react in areas, and the possibility of inaccurate measurement.
  • Failure to properly flush the titrator before beginning the experiment, either contaminating the solution, or diluting it with residual deionized water.
  • Failure to properly handle the solutions, introducing the likelihood of contamination (NaOH can react with carbon dioxide in the air, while the HCl can leave solution, and return to its gaseous state), thus disrupting measurements.
  • Failure to properly measure the Calcium Carbonate (measuring mass, then grinding it would be one such example, as would be taking too much). Both of these would disrupt further measurements.
  • Human error is always in effect, given that the laboratory does not function under ideal conditions. As such, there is always the possibility of inaccuracies with measurement, perception of measurement, inaccuracies of equipment, and other such errors. (However, this is not likely to be the sole cause of the inaccuracies within this experiment, though it may contribute to it.)


Possible improvements that one could make to the experiment include using a more accurate pH probe, using more accurate balances (relating back to Lab 6a, and the standardization of the NaOH titrant), using a more accurate titrator (the syringe could be made more accurate), ensuring that lab partners read the experiment beforehand (increasing familiarity with the procedure, and minimizing human error), preparing the solutions in an atmosphere that lacks carbon dioxide (to avoid reaction of the NaOH solution), keeping the HCl solution covered (to minimize inaccuracies caused by it leaving solution) and repeating the experiment multiple times (to minimize the impact of an anomalous result).

DRAFT: This module has unpublished changes.